Juan was

Cheng-shih custom research papers was the name of Ts'ao Fang's first reign-period (239–248). Job Research Papers - Geoteci Once again, the literary period does not coincide precisely with the reign-period; this one lasted roughly until the Wei dynasty came to an end in 265. Beginning in this age and continuing through the Western Chin, poetry became a deadly business. Many leading poets met violent deaths at the hands of the state during the years the Ssu-ma family was in power. Involvement in government was so risky that many people went to extraordinary lengths to avoid it. But that could be dangerous, too, for refusing to serve might also be taken as criticism. The literary theorist and critic Liu Hsieh (465?–520?) pointed to the Taoist proclivities of the age in his Wen-hsin tiao-lung (The Literary Mind and Carving of Dragons), no doubt reflecting on the escapism and interest in immortality prevalent among Cheng-shih writers. The most famous poets of the period are Juan Chi (210–263) and Hsi K'ang (also pronounced Chi K'ang; 223–262). Juan Chi was the son of Juan Yü, a Chien-an writer. Juan Chi was known for bizarre and antiritualistic behavior that sometimes shocked people, but the leading political figures of the day repeatedly tried to employ him thanks to his fame. Juan was wary of the danger that might attend slighting the Ssu-mas or their followers, so his strategy for avoiding appointment to office was to try to beg off, and if that didn't work, to quit as soon as possible by pleading illness. He seems to have enjoyed goodwill within the Ssu-ma leadership, and that probably afforded him a measure of protection. Even so, when Ssu-ma Chao (211–265) reportedly tried to arrange a marriage between his son, the future Emperor Wu of Chin, and Juan's daughter, Juan supposedly stayed drunk for sixty days to avoid it. Juan's affection for drink is legendary—he is said to have taken one post solely because it came with an assistant who was clever at distilling spirits. Juan's name is also associated with the so-called Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove (Chu-lin ch'i hsien), a famous group of nonconformists. Whatever attitudes or eccentricities the seven may initially have had in common, different opinions regarding Ssu-ma rule eventually caused rifts among them.

31.5.11 08:58


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